Cancers is Proportional : A Part from the Book Chapter : Estimation of Low Radiation Doses Effects by Using Tumor Markers

The standard terminology for categorizing levels of radiation exposure was introduced by UNSCEAR in its 2012 publication. A low dose is classified as falling within the range of 10 to 100 mGy, a moderate dose is within approximately 100 mGy to around 1 Gy, and a high dose is considered to be anything exceeding about 1 G y. Low radiation risks are linked to doses using a linear, no-threshold approach. Briefly, LINEAR means that the dose and risk have a proportionate connection. And NO-THRESHOLD indicates that any dose, no matter how small, could carry some risk. The effect of low radiation doses is still being debated according to ICRP (2005), risk observations at moderate to high doses are extrapolated to estimate radiation-related risk at low dose levels. Additionally, the risk of mortality and morbidity from cancers is proportional to radiation dose down to about 100 mSv.

Epidemiological data help determine the risks associated with radiation at acute doses and to a lesser extent low dose ranges (~10 mSv), but not in the very low (~1 mSv) or extremely low (~0.1 mSv) ranges. Estimating the risk of lower radiation dose levels that are more concerning in our lives is the most significant issue in radiation risk protection. In this study, doses were less than 10 mSv, and it’s essential to understand their effect because most RWs are exposed to less than 10 mSv.

Author(s) Details:

Areej Dahdol
Palestinian Ministry of Health, Salfit, Palestine and Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Health Professions, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine.

Mohammad Hjouj
Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Health Professions, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine.

Also See : The Raw Turmeric : A Part from the Book Chapter : Turmeric: The Ultimate Health Elixir for a Balanced Life

Recent Global Research Developments in Tumor Markers: A Critical Cancer Diagnostic Test

Mass Spectrometry-Based Targeted Proteomics:

  • Clinical Proteomics published a review on mass-spectrometry-based targeted proteomics for cancer biomarkers [1].
  • This technique allows precise quantification of peptides and proteins in biological samples.
  • Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) overcomes challenges associated with immunoassays.
  • However, clinical implementation remains limited due to validation gaps and operational complexities.

Diagnostic Strategies Evaluation:

  • Rigorous evaluation of new diagnostic tests occurs across various medical disciplines, including biochemistry, pathology, radiology, and genomics [2].
  • Frameworks developed by academic and policy groups guide this process.

Genome-Wide 5-Hydroxymethylcytosines:

  • A study profiled genome-wide 5hmC (5-hydroxymethylcytosine) in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from gastric cancer patients [3].
  • This research sheds light on epigenetic modifications as potential tumor markers.

REMARK Guidelines for Tumor Biomarker Studies:

  • In 2005, experts introduced the REporting recommendations for Tumor MARKer prognostic studies (REMARK) criteria [4].
  • These guidelines enhance reporting quality in tumor biomarker research.


  1. Wenk, D., Zuo, C., Kislinger, T. et al. Recent developments in mass-spectrometry-based targeted proteomics of clinical cancer biomarkers. Clin Proteom 21, 6 (2024).
  2. Walter, F.M., Thompson, M.J., Wellwood, I. et al. Evaluating diagnostic strategies for early detection of cancer: the CanTest framework. BMC Cancer 19, 586 (2019).
  3. Fu, Y., Jiang, J., Wu, Y. et al. Genome-wide 5-hydroxymethylcytosines in circulating cell-free DNA as noninvasive diagnostic markers for gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer 27, 735–746 (2024).
  4. Hayes, D.F., Sauerbrei, W. & McShane, L.M. REMARK guidelines for tumour biomarker study reporting: a remarkable history. Br J Cancer 128, 443–445 (2023).

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