Marine Shellfish Aquaculture : A Part from the Book Chapter : Sequestration of Atmospheric Carbon through Ocean Calcifiers: An Approach towards Climate Change

Despite the positive messages of our publications referenced above, distinguished marine chemists have cast doubt on our claims by stating (we paraphrase) ‘marine shellfish aquaculture could not make a contribution to climate mitigation’; two reasons being offered for this point of view are: (i) seawater has become more acidic and shellfish species are shrinking in size and the shells deform, and (ii) precipitation of calcium carbonate in shellfish is a source of carbon dioxide (CO2) …and the major way by which CO2 is returned to the atmosphere (see ‘Frequently Asked Questions’ section in and the schemes in.

In this paper, we attempt to provide a different, biological, viewpoint of the published data bearing on these two specific issues, which we hope will show why cultivating calcifiers in the short term would be advantageous. We also include some comments about the psychological paradox of why, when we know more than enough about the climate system, we do so little to control climate change, being satisfied merely with coping with its outcomes

Author(s) Details:

David Moore
Department of Biology, Medicine and Health, School of Biological Sciences, The University of
Manchester, UK.

Matthias Heilweck
Independent Researcher, F-68240, Kaysersberg, France.

William Burton Fears
Department of Medicine, Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas and Founding Fellow of the
American College of Endocrinology, USA.

Peter Petros
Kaapa Biotech Oy, Teilinummentie 4, 09120 Karjalohja, Finland.

Samuel J Squires
Department of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, UK.

Elena Tamburini
Department of Environmental and Prevention Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

Robert Paul Waldron
Independent Researcher, LA-70448, Mandeville, Louisiana, USA.

Also See : The Huge Consumption of Plastics : A Part from the Book Chapter : Microplastic Exposure to Infants

Recent Global Research Developments in Role of Marine Calcifiers in Climate Mitigation

A Review and Meta-Analysis of Potential Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Calcifiers From the Southern Ocean

  • This comprehensive study [1] focuses on the vulnerability of marine calcifiers to ocean acidification (OA) in the Southern Ocean (SO). The SO is expected to be one of the first and most severely affected regions due to anthropogenic CO₂ absorption by the global oceans.
  • Key findings:
  • OA Effects: Ocean acidification, caused by increased CO₂ absorption, reduces surface seawater pH levels. This process shallows the saturation horizon, where calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) dissolves. Marine calcifiers are vulnerable to dissolution.
  • Mineralogical Composition Matters: Species-specific responses vary based on their skeletal mineralogy. Taxa with calcitic, aragonitic, and high-Mg calcite (HMC) skeletons may be at greater risk, while low-Mg calcite (LMC) species could be more resilient.
  • Future Projections: OA and ocean warming could further impact these calcifiers, especially those depositing more soluble CaCO₃ mineral phases.
  • Researchers from various institutions contributed to this valuable analysis.

Perspective on the Response of Marine Calcifiers to Global Warming and Ocean Acidification

  • Focusing on foraminifera and corals, this paper [2] explores their contribution to the global carbonate burial rate. These calcifiers play a crucial role in maintaining marine ecosystems.
  • As CO₂ emissions accelerate, understanding how marine organisms respond to ocean acidification and warming becomes increasingly important.


  1. Figuerola B, Hancock AM, Bax N, Cummings VJ, Downey R, Griffiths HJ, Smith J and Stark JS (2021) A Review and Meta-Analysis of Potential Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Calcifiers From the Southern Ocean. Front. Mar. Sci. 8:584445. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.584445
  2. Kawahata, H., Fujita, K., Iguchi, A. et al. Perspective on the response of marine calcifiers to global warming and ocean acidification—Behavior of corals and foraminifera in a high CO2 world “hot house”. Prog Earth Planet Sci 6, 5 (2019).

To Read the Complete Chapter See Here


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