Metabolite Identification and Quantification : A Part from the Book Chapter : Metabolomics and Metabolic Pathway Analysis: Decoding Cellular Biochemistry

METABOLITE IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION

Metabolite identification and quantification are crucial steps in metabolomics studies. Advances in analytical technologies such as mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have enabled high-throughput profiling of metabolites in biological samples.

Mass Spectrometry Methods

Mass spectrometry is one of the most widely used analytical techniques in metabolomics due to its high sensitivity, accuracy and ability to detect a broad range of metabolites. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) provides robust separation and detection of volatile and thermally stable compounds while liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is more suitable for polar, thermolabile metabolites.

Tandem mass spectrometry techniques such as MS/MS are often used to obtain structural information about metabolites through fragmentation patterns, aiding in their identification. High-resolution mass spectrometers like time-of-flight (TOF), Orbitrap and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) provide highly accurate mass measurements which are valuable for detecting novel metabolites.

Author(s) Details:

Ebenezer Morayo Ale
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Olanrewaju Roland Akinseye
HAT Unit, Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis & Onchocerciasis Research, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Richard-Harris Nsenreuti Boyi
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Victoria Ifeoluwa Ayo
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. 

Mgbede Joy Timothy
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Steve Osagie Asuelimen
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.


Also See : Rice Cultivation Becomes Contaminated With Arsenic Through the Application of Fertilizers: A Part from The Book Chapter : Current Status of Arsenic Contamination and the Characterization of Dissimilatory Arsenate-Reducing Bacteria


Recent Global Research Developments in The Potential of Metabolomics in Biomedical Applications

Metabolomics in Cancer Research:

  • Overview: Cancer, due to its heterogeneous nature and widespread prevalence, has significant socioeconomic impacts worldwide. Understanding cancer at the molecular level is crucial for early diagnosis.
  • Role of Metabolites: Metabolites play a key role in cancer pathophysiology. They are significantly altered during the “reprogramming of energy metabolism,” a hallmark of cancer cells.
  • Metabolomics: Metabolomics, an emerging omics technology, investigates cancer metabolites by analyzing diverse metabolites in biofluids and tumor tissues from cancer patients compared to healthy controls. It aims to identify effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis [1].

GC–MS Approaches in Metabolomics:

  • Sample Preparation: Recent developments in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) focus on sample preparation and preservation techniques.
  • Chemical Derivatization: Various chemical derivatization techniques (in-time, in-liner, offline, and microwave-assisted) enhance metabolite analysis using GC–MS [2].

Future Prospects:

  • Metabolomics continues to evolve, with applications spanning diverse research fields.
  • Exciting advancements include improved disease diagnostics, personalized treatments, and deeper insights into cellular metabolism [3].

Metabolomics in Cancer Research and EmergingApplications in Clinical Oncology

  • Cancer has myriad effects on metabolism that include both rewiring of in-tracellular metabolism to enable cancer cells to proliferate inappropriately and adaptto the tumor microenvironment, and changes in normal tissue metabolism. [4]

References

  1. Taunk, K., Jajula, S., Bhavsar, P.P. et al. The prowess of metabolomics in cancer research: current trends, challenges and future perspectives. Mol Cell Biochem (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-024-05041-w
  2. Beale, D.J., Pinu, F.R., Kouremenos, K.A. et al. Review of recent developments in GC–MS approaches to metabolomics-based research. Metabolomics 14, 152 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11306-018-1449-2
  3. Sharma, S., Singh, G., & Akhter, M. (2023). Metabolomics: Recent Advances and Future Prospects Unveiled.
  4. Schmidt, D. R., Patel, R., Kirsch, D. G., Lewis, C. A., Vander Heiden, M. G., & Locasale, J. W. (2021). Metabolomics in cancer research and emerging applications in clinical oncology. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 71(4), 333-358.

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