Several Subspecies of B. Thuringiensis have been Reported to Produce Chitinases : A Part from the Book Chapter : Genes chi of Native Bacillus thuringiensis Strains from Maranhão Active against Aedes aegypti Larvae

Several subspecies of B. thuringiensis have been reported to produce chitinases. Nowadays, there are more than 100 chitinase genes harbored in different subspecies of B. thuringiensis that have been reported in GenBank (NCBI 2022). Barboza-Corona et al. classified chitinases of B. thuringiensis in four groups, based on amino acid sequence alignments, verifying that one of the main differences occurred in sequences located in their N-terminus. Lately, Martínez-Zavala et al. suggest that chitinases from B. thuringiensis form two main groups, based on chitinolytic activity and non-chitinolytic activity against insects, fungi, or nematodes.

In insects that cause problems in agriculture and health, the toxicity of chitinase produced by B. thuringiensis has been widely reported to play a key role in increasing the insecticidal activity of Cry proteins like Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus 1762), vectors of highly pathogenic viruses for humans, such as dengue, chikungunya and zika, which cause febrile, hemorrhagic and neurological illnesses and remain a major threat to global public health.

This research carried out a survey of strains of B. thuringiensis store in the Maranhão Entomopathogenic Bacteria Collection that amplified to the chi gene in combination with the cry and cyt genes and were pathogenic to Ae. aegypti larvae.

Author(s) Details:

Maria Cleoneide da Silva
Entomopathogenic Bacteria and Molecular Markers Laboratory, Maranhão State University (UEMA), Campus Caxias, Caxias, MA, Brazil.

Jeverson Renato Moraes Brito
Entomopathogenic Bacteria and Molecular Markers Laboratory, Maranhão State University (UEMA), Campus Caxias, Caxias, MA, Brazil.

Emanuelle Cristine Pereira de Sousa
Entomopathogenic Bacteria and Molecular Markers Laboratory, Maranhão State University (UEMA), Campus Caxias, Caxias, MA, Brazil.

Dalton Kaynnan de Prado Costa
Complex Genetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Maranhão State University (UEMA), Campus Caxias, Caxias, MA, Brazil.

Alessandra Maria Silva Vidigal
Complex Genetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Maranhão State University (UEMA), Campus Caxias, Caxias, MA, Brazil.


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Recent Global Research Developments in Enhancing Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins for Pest Control

Editorial: Improving Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins for Better Pest Control:

  • This editorial discusses the challenges posed by insect resistance to Bt toxins. Despite advances in genetic engineering, resistance has increased. The research topic focuses on understanding the mechanism of action of Cry proteins and exploring new aspects of their detection and application.
  • Notably, five original research articles and two reviews contribute valuable insights to this ongoing battle between Cry toxins and insects [1].

Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) for Detecting Toxin Genes:

  • Díaz-Valerio et al. introduced a promising approach using HMMs to detect toxin genes. This method enhances Bt resources by identifying new insights into the use of biopesticides [1].

Plant Polysaccharides and Biofilm-Active Bt Biopesticides:

  • Li et al. explored how plant polysaccharides influence biofilm formation and insecticidal activities of Bt strains. Their work lays the foundation for constructing biofilm-active Bt biopesticides with improved field duration [1].

Bt Proteins and Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera:

  • Qi et al. investigated Bt protein resistance in the cotton bollworm, H. armigera. They found that Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa proteins are durable alternatives for Bt cotton crops, especially when Cry1Ac resistance is present [1].

Advances in Vip Proteins:

  • Gupta et al. reviewed recent research on Vip proteins, aiming to enhance Bt applications as a general biocontrol agent [1].

References

  1. Citation: Castellane TCL, Lemos MVF and Escriche B (2021) Editorial: Improving Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins for Better Pest Control. Front. Microbiol. 12:799011. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.799011

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