Southward IMF : A Part from the Book Chapter : The Solar Wind Impact on Magnetosphere and Identification of the IMF by Component with Use of the Ground-Based Magnetic Data

Since magnetic storms, produced by ring currents in magnetosphere (Ring Disturbances – DR) and magnetic substorms, produced by currents in polar ionosphere (Polar Disturbances – DP) are mainly related to southward IMF polarity, the conclusion was made  that magnetic disturbances are caused by the solar plasma fluxes carrying the southward BZS IMF component. Apart from magnetic substorms, developed in the auroral zone, the regular weak magnetic disturbances were revealed also in polar cap. These polar cap variations, named as DP2 disturbances, are observed permanently, irrespective of season and level of magnetic activity, the intensity of disturbances being also dependent on southward BZS IMF component. In addition, specific DP3 and DP4 disturbances, related to BZN and BY IMF influence, were found in polar caps as well. The ionospheric current system DP1 responsible for magnetic substorms is presented in, current systems of the polar cap magnetic disturbances DP2 (b), DP3 (c), DP4 (d) are shown in.

Author(s) Details:

 A. Troshichev

Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Russia.

Also SeeRoughly 12 Million Char Residents in Bangladesh Grapple with the Annual Challenges of Floods : A Part from The Book : Living with Floods in Bangladesh’s Riverine Islands: Understanding Vulnerability and Resilience

Recent Global Research Developments in Southward IMF

 1. Importance of Southward IMF:

2. Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves Under Southward IMF:

  • Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves, driven by velocity shear, are often observed during northward IMF conditions.
  • However, they are less frequently observed during southward IMF.
  • A recent 3D MHD simulation investigated KH instability under pure southward IMF conditions.
  • In the linear phase of KH instability, there are minimal jet flows along both northward and southward directions.
  • In the nonlinear growth phase, KH vortices form with a width of approximately 12λ and a duration of about 20 Alfvén times (t_A).
  • Jet flows with peak V_z values of around 0.5V_A are distributed in the spine region and the edge of the KH vortex [2].

3. Rectified IMF Components:


1. Russell, C.T. Comment on: “Origin and Characteristics of the Southward Component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field” by G. Verbanac and M. Bandić. Sol Phys 297, 119 (2022).

2. Wang, JQ., Yang, Y., Khan, S. et al. Jets with Kelvin-Helmholtz waves at the Earth’s magnetopause under pure southward IMF conditions. Astrophys Space Sci 368, 12 (2023).

3. Verbanac, G., Bandić, M. Origin and Characteristics of the Southward Component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field. Sol Phys 296, 183 (2021).

To Read the Complete Chapter See Here

Related Posts

Coastal erosion

Beach Morphology Observed in Sindhudurg : A Part from the Book Chapter : Morphological Uniqueness of Beach Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra, India

The coast of Sindhudurg presents a hilly aspect with low lateritic plateaus and basaltic bluffs descending right into the sea, through steep slopes and cliff faces. There…

Remote Sensing

Mine Exploration by Using Remote Sensing Techniques : A Part from the Book Chapter : Identification of Iron Ore Mine and Structural Lineaments Extraction by Using Remote Sensing Technique, Iran: A Case Study of the Sangan Khaf Iron Ore Mine

There are a lot of research related to mine exploration by using remote sensing techniques. Somaieh Afshari and his colleagues in 2015 investigated the extraction of geological…

Groundwater Exploration

Aquifers in a Granite Terrain : A Part from the Book Chapter : Delineation of Fractured Aquifer Using Numerical Analysis (Factor) of Resistivity Data in a Granite Terrain

The resistivity investigations in hard rock regions by and large reflect in A, H or HA type of sounding curves. In hard rock terrains especially granites and…

ionospheric slab thickness

Diurnal Variation of the Ionospheric Slab Thickness : A Part from the Book Chapter : Estimation of foF2 Using Global Model of Ionospheric Slab Thickness (GMIST) During January 15, 2022 Tonga Eruption

Ma and Maruyama, based on GPS TEC data and Kokubunji ionosonde foF2 data, reported that seasonal variations of ionospheric slab thickness during a daytime exhibits opposite phase…

Electromagnetic Scattering

Planar Layered Media : A Part from the Book Chapter : Exact Solution of Far-Region Scattering Electromagnetic Fields by a Dipole Antenna Located on a Planar Multi-Layered Earth

An attempt to derive field expressions that are not subject to restrictive assumptions has been made by Chew, where an analytical procedure has been presented that allows…

Aqueous Paleoenvironments

Reconstructing Aqueous Paleoenvironments Based : A Part from the Book Chapter : Foraminifera Proxy of Short Core Samples: A Retrospective Study of Ecological Development of Surabaya and Bali Semi-enclosed Bay, Indonesia

Sediment material in the coastal waters was transported through river streams and/or eroded materials from the surrounding area, therefore vertical stratification of the substratum sediments in this…

Leave a Reply