This Measure may only Help Prevent Accidental Ingestion by Children : A Part from the Book Chapter : Kerosene: Use, Misuse and Clinical Implication of Repeated Exposure

Moreover, in adults, cases of unintentional exposure do occur through inhalation of its fumes as well as from the dermal route. In Nigeria especially, this is possible since this hydrocarbon liquid is sold in residential areas by kerosene retailers. Sometimes, these retailers measure this product using bowls meant for domestic purposes, without giving any consideration for its toxic effects. “In many countries in Africa, no regulations are enforcing safe packaging. In times of kerosene scarcity, therefore, this has resulted in paraffin being transported and stored or sold in empty beverage bottles and other items used for water storage. Many sellers of this product are deceived into doing this because trace exposure does not produce instant signs or manifestations of toxicity”. Meanwhile, various paraffin-safety initiatives have been put forth by a few countries. For example, Australia has mandated that paraffin be dyed blue to prevent confusion with water. Since in many developing countries, exposure to this agent is deliberate in most cases, some of the measures that have been put in place in other parts of the world may not be helpful. This measure may only help prevent accidental ingestion by children.

Author(s) Details:

Ayobola Abolape Iyanda
Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria.

John I. Anetor
Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Also See : DNA is Degraded by Enzymes Like Deoxyribonuclease: A Part from The Book Chapter : Homemade Molecular Devices, Detections and Methods

Recent Global Research Developments in Antioxidant Status in Rats Exposed to Kerosene, Petrol, and Biomass Fuel

Oxidative Status in Rat Kidney Exposed to Petroleum Hydrocarbons:

  • This study investigated the impact of petroleum hydrocarbon exposure on renal tissues.
  • Rats were exposed to kerosene, petrol, and diesel via inhalation, food contamination, and water contamination for eight weeks.
  • Results:
  • Exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons led to:
  • Increased serum urea and creatinine levels.
  • Elevated renal tissue malondialdehyde (a marker of lipid peroxidation).
  • Reduced urinary urea and creatinine levels.
  • Decreased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in renal tissue.
  • Serum and urine concentrations of albumin and total protein remained comparable across groups.
  • Conclusion: Petroleum hydrocarbon exposure caused renal dysfunction through oxidative stress, affecting lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense mechanisms [1].

Assessment of Total Antioxidant Status in Rats Exposed to Kerosene, Petrol, and Biomass Fuel:

  • In this study, researchers evaluated and compared the total antioxidant status of rats exposed to these fuels.
  • The study involved 24 adult male Wistar rats.
  • Unfortunately, I don’t have detailed results from this specific study, but it highlights the importance of assessing antioxidant status in fuel-exposed rats [2].


  1. Azeez, O. M., Akhigbe, R. E., & Anigbogu, C. N. (2013). Oxidative status in rat kidney exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine, 4(1), 149.

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