Ultraviolet C (UVC) Rays Cause Skin Cancer : A Part from the Book Chapter : From Rays to Protection: How Sun Exposure Affects Our Skin and the Importance of Sunscreen

The sun’s light has both positive and negative effects on humans—radiation with an ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. UV rays are divided into three categories, 1 UVA, 2 UVB, and 2 UVB.

Exposure to light, especially to UVA radiation, is quite prevalent. Less time in the sun exposed to UVB rays means more powerful UVB rays. Ultraviolet C (UVC) rays cause skin cancer. Thankfully, UVC rays do not pose a risk to us. These rays are blocked by the ozone layer of the planet (the Troposphere soaks up all harmful UV radiation). UV rays may penetrate human skin, making them invisible to the naked eye.

The endothelium that makes up the skin’s epithelial tissue. The dermis is the second layer of skin and the innermost. In the dermis, we may see blood vessels and nerves. Darker skin is a pigmentation found in the cells of the epidermis. Fair-skinned individuals burn more efficiently; thus, dark-skinned people have more melanin. Melanin aids our skin and converts sunlight into vitamin D  Humans get sunburns, tans (a brown hue to the skin particularly evident in exposure to the sun, resembling yellowish brown), and darken as our bodies produce melanin to absorb UV radiation. Prolonged time in the sun exposes more deep layers of skin to harmful UV radiation. Also known as sunburn, this condition may lead to death, damage, or even cancer of the skin cells. Skin disease symptoms often manifest themselves within a couple of minutes of exposure to sunlight. If the sun exposure is inadequate, you may experience  Migraines, fever, nausea, and exhaustion If, for instance, your garment has a tangled weaving that lets ultraviolet (UV) radiation through, even the covered sections may burn. The planet’s UV rays may potentially cause severe retinal degeneration. In a matter of days, the skin’s top layer may begin to peel as the body starts healing. It might take a few days for severe sun exposure to recover. During this time, most skin color swatches fade entirely. Possessing light complexion and red hair; a propensity of scorching; a bright, temperate, or elevated climate; outdoor work; swimming, sprinkling oneself with vinegar or baby oil, since wet skin burns more easily than dry skin; working in the sunlight. Constantly exposing bare skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or artificial sources like tanning beds. Smoking while under the influence of a substance that increases the risk of fire (photosensitizing medication).

Author(s) Details:

Sabira Sultana
Department of Eastern Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan

Shafaq Naz
Department of Eastern Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan

Naheed Akhtar
Department of Pharmacy, University of Poonch Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

Musarrat Ijaz
Department of Pharmaceutics, Cadson College of Pharmacy, Kharian, Pakistan.

Sidra Huma
Bahawalpur Medical and Dental College, Bahawalpur College of Pharmacy (BMDC Complex), Pakistan.

Muhammad Shahzad Khan
Abbas Institute of Medical Sciences, GC University Faisalabad, Layyah Campus. Layyah 31200, Punjab, Pakistan

Rizwana Dilshad
Swedish College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Science, Rahim Yar Khan Campus, Pakistan.

Sumbal Tanveer
Riphah International University, Islamabad

Tamseela Shahzadi
Riphah International University, Islamabad

Muhammad Saleem Qureshi
Akbar Institute of Medical Sciences Bahawalpur, Pakistan

Also See : Etiology of the Disease : A Part from The Book Chapter : Decortications through Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery and Open Thoracotomy in Empyema Thoracis: A Retrospective Study

Recent Global Research Developments in Sun Exposure Effects and the Importance of Sunscreen

Sunscreens and Photoaging:

  • Sunscreens not only protect against ultraviolet (UV)-induced erythema but also play a role in preventing photoaging, dyspigmentation, DNA damage, and photocarcinogenesis [1].
  • Evidence suggests that visible light and infrared light may contribute to photoaging, so choosing a broad-spectrum sunscreen that covers these wavelengths is essential.
  • A tinted sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher, used daily, can offer protection against UV radiation and visible light, reducing their effects on photoaging.

Sunscreen Safety:

  • Recent studies have focused on the safety of sunscreen active ingredients in humans and the environment [2].
  • Regulatory developments are addressing gaps in our understanding and ensuring safe use.

Tuning Sunscreen Efficacy:

  • Due to global warming and increased UV radiation exposure, photoprotection awareness is crucial [3].
  • Researchers are exploring ways to enhance sunscreen efficacy.


  1. Guan, L.L., Lim, H.W. & Mohammad, T.F. Sunscreens and Photoaging: A Review of Current Literature. Am J Clin Dermatol 22, 819–828 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40257-021-00632-5
  2. Adler, B.L., DeLeo, V.A. Sunscreen Safety: a Review of Recent Studies on Humans and the Environment. Curr Derm Rep 9, 1–9 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13671-020-00284-4
  3. Parwaiz, S., Khan, M.M. Recent developments in tuning the efficacy of different types of sunscreens. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 46, 1711–1727 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-023-02919-9

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