Echinococcosis is an Endemic Disease : A Part from the Book Chapter : Understanding the Effect of Bioactive Compounds from Spirogyra sp. in Reducing the Protoscolices Viability In-vitro compared with Albendazole Drug

Echinococcosis is an endemic disease in large parts of the world, such as some of the countries of South America, the Middle East, and North Africa, which are Hyperendemic regions of the disease. Including the Arab countries, such as Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Lebanon, Palestine, and Iraq.

In the seventh decade of the 20th century, researchers aimed to use benzemidazole and its derivatives such as albendazole (ABZ), mebendazole (MBZ), fenbendazole , and other drugs as a treatment for hydatid cysts disease. Because of its high solubility and its entry into the hydatid cyst before the completion of its layers compared with other treatments, resulting in a decrease in the size of the cyst. It is the main routine treatment after the surgical removal of a hydatid cyst. Studies show that about 30% of Aqueous has completely treated Andasul Alps, while 40-50% have responded after a short period of treatment, then the effects of this treatment appeared in the body, especially when used for a long time. Because of the negative effects of chemotherapy, such as impaired liver function, diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain, as well as the possibility of the return of infection in some cases and the resistance of parasites to some therapeutic materials, so many researchers went to the use of medicinal plants trying to find alternative treatments with less or without side effects, Cost and research worldwide.

Author(s) Details:

Hadi M. Almayali
Biology Determent, Faculty of Education, University of AL-Qadisiyah, Al-Dewania, Iraq.

Haider M. Alkaabi
Biology Determent, Faculty of Education, University of AL-Qadisiyah, Al-Dewania, Iraq.

Also See : The Raw Turmeric : A Part from the Book Chapter : Turmeric: The Ultimate Health Elixir for a Balanced Life

Recent Global Research Developments in Drug Treatments for Hydatid Cyst Disease

Management Protocols for Hepatic Hydatid Disease:

  • A review article in the Indian Journal of Surgery discusses the management of hepatic hydatid cysts. It covers etiology, classification, diagnostic methods, medical, minimally invasive, and surgical approaches, as well as complications and their management [1].
  • Surgical goals include safe exposure, decompression, evacuation of cyst contents, sterilization, and addressing cystobiliary communication if present.

Advances in Antihydatid Nanodrugs:

  • Researchers have been working on developing benzimidazole-based antihydatid nanodrugs. These efforts aim to improve treatment outcomes [2].

Albendazole Treatment:

  • Albendazole has been studied extensively for treating hydatid cysts. Research includes case studies, clinical trials in humans, and animal experiments [3].

Urinary Bladder Hydatid Disease:

    • There’s literature on hydatid disease affecting the urinary bladder. It covers history, physical findings, diagnostic workups, and treatment options [4].

Laparoscopic Approaches:

    • Laparoscopic treatments for liver hydatid disease have evolved. Techniques now include pericystectomy and even segmentectomy in selected cases [5].


  1. Regmee, S., Maharjan, D.K. & Thapa, P.B. The Current Protocols in the Management of Hepatic Hydatid Disease. Indian J Surg 83 (Suppl 4), 810–817 (2021).
  2. Cheraghipour, K., Rouzbahani, A. K., Fallahi, S., Taherpour, F., Moradifard, F., Shakib, P., … & Marzban, A. (2023). Recent Advances in Therapeutic Strategies against Hydatid Cysts using Nanomaterials: A Systematic Review. Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, 20(9), 1185-1193.
  3. Dehkordi, A. B., Sanei, B., Yousefi, M., Sharafi, S. M., Safarnezhad, F., Jafari, R., & Darani, H. Y. (2019). Albendazole and treatment of hydatid cyst: review of the literature. Infectious Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-Infectious Disorders), 19(2), 101-104.
  4. Cordell, M., Ahmed, M.E., Schurhamer, B. et al. Hydatid Disease of the Urinary Bladder: a Review. Curr Bladder Dysfunct Rep 15, 340–344 (2020).
  5. Bayrak, M., Altıntas, Y. Current approaches in the surgical treatment of liver hydatid disease: single center experience. BMC Surg 19, 95 (2019).

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