Reconstructing Aqueous Paleoenvironments Based : A Part from the Book Chapter : Foraminifera Proxy of Short Core Samples: A Retrospective Study of Ecological Development of Surabaya and Bali Semi-enclosed Bay, Indonesia

Sediment material in the coastal waters was transported through river streams and/or eroded materials from the surrounding area, therefore vertical stratification of the substratum sediments in this area is a precious ecological proxy of the region from several decades to more than a century. The sedimentary depositional facies provides a fundamental concept for reconstructing aqueous paleoenvironments based on the geological record. The facies concept contains many assumptions about the physics, chemistry, and biology of the environmental deposition, and spans multiple temporal and spatial scales. Various bio-geochemical proxies were obtained on core samples to reconstruct various hazards such as eutrophication and hypoxia over a period. Fine sediment in coastal waters, not only a perfect contaminant medium, but also a perfect habitat for meio-benthic biota such as foraminifera, since this nourish sediment fraction allows various species of benthic foraminifera to grow and thrive.

Author(s) Details:

Research Center for Oceanography-National Research and Innovation Agency Jl, Pasir Putih I, Ancol Timur, Jakarta Utara, 1440, Indonesia.

Also See : Pit lakes created after the completion of open-pit coal mining : A Part from the Book Chapter : Ecological Approach on Investigating the Open Pit Lakes Developed in Oltenia Mining Region: A Case Study of Urdari Lake, Romania

Recent global research developments in Sedimentary Facies and Foraminifera: Proxies for Reconstructing Coastal Paleoenvironments

1. “Late Quaternary Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction, Using Benthic Foraminifera and Ostracoda, of Marine Sedimentary Beds On the Southern Coast of Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China” [1]:

  • Journal: Journal of Foraminiferal Research (2018)
  • Abstract: This study utilized benthic foraminifera and ostracoda from boreholes in Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, to interpret paleoenvironments and coastal responses to global sea-level changes since the late Quaternary. Three marine sedimentary beds were identified, representing different time periods (late-middle Pleistocene, late Pleistocene, and Holocene). Microfossil assemblages indicated nearshore conditions during these periods [1 ].

2. “Mid-Late Holocene Paleoenvironmental and Sea Level Reconstruction on the Al Lith Red Sea Coast, Saudi Arabia” [2]:

  • Journal: Frontiers in Marine Science (2021)
  • Abstract: Using a multiproxy approach, this study reconstructed mid-Late Holocene paleoenvironments and sea level based on a sediment core from the Red Sea coastal zone. The core revealed distinctive depositional units, including evidence of marine transgressions and a late Holocene sea-level fall. Stable isotopic data supported a change to a more arid climate during this period [2].

3. “Reconstructing Terrestrial Paleoenvironments Using Sedimentary Organic Molecular Fossils” [3]:

4. “Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction from Faunal Remains: Ecological Perspectives and Limitations”:

  • Journal: Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory (2017)
  • Abstract: This article explores the use of biological data (such as zooarchaeological remains) as proxies for environmental variables. It highlights the assumptions and limitations involved in reconstructing paleoenvironments based on faunal remains


  1. Cui, X., Li, S., Xu, H., Zhang, Z., Zhao, X., Gao, Z., … & Zhang, X. (2018). Late quaternary Paleoenvironmental reconstruction, using benthic foraminifera and Ostracoda, of marine sedimentary beds on the southern coast of Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 48(2), 87-99.
  2. Ghandour IM, Al-Zubieri AG, Basaham AS, Mannaa AA, Al-Dubai TA and Jones BG (2021) Mid-Late Holocene Paleoenvironmental and Sea Level Reconstruction on the Al Lith Red Sea Coast, Saudi Arabia. Front. Mar. Sci. 8:677010. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.677010
  3. Berke, M.A. (2018). Reconstructing Terrestrial Paleoenvironments Using Sedimentary Organic Biomarkers. In: Croft, D., Su, D., Simpson, S. (eds) Methods in Paleoecology. Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology. Springer, Cham.

 To Read the Complete Chapter See Here

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